Under the new Soviet state, unions were the site of fractious battles between the Bolsheviks and other political forces.
The main railway workers’ union Vikzhel, led by Mensheviks, launched the first general political crisis of the regime over the establishment of a coalition socialist government. At the end of December 1917, the minority Bolshevik fraction walked out of the union’s congress and set up a new organisation (Aves 1989).
The trade unions were strengthened by the incorporation of the factory committees at the beginning of 1918.
As early as January 1918 the First Trade-Union